Earth Path Defense 

Protection for Earth & Humanity as Human Horizons Rise

Space - The Final Frontier
           First, we secured our homeworld.
                                         Then, all of space was open to us. 

Why Government 'Suddenly Noticed' the Danger from
Asteroids and Comets
The Correct Approach to Title Rights in Space

Page 2 - How Title Rights Are Handled

     See  the EPDF Plans for activating millions of people and $353-billion capital for the defense of the Earth, without allowing politicians to control an asset they finally realized is worth $1,000 Trillion, minimum right now.  Now, they want to force taxpayers to pay, while they collect the wealth presented by mining asteroids. The EPDF wants to create the wealth instantly required without taxpayers, to achieve the first 6 of 11 goals to assure the protection of Humanity. We can do this without force, force of law imitating logical order of people in agreement, nor taxes, nor permits. Simply, the recognition of responsibilities in freedom will offer peace, prosperity, and freedom throughout the Solar System. 

    The Earth Path Defense Fund (EPDF) believes that neither government welfare scientists nor any military have the motivation, the clear mission, nor funding, to protect Earth.  The failure of this paradigm is obvious.  Trusting the concept of governing is foolish, instead of recognizing incentive-based earned property rights-to-title percentages for Asteroid Detection, Deflection & Development (ADDD):

2% for the discovering astronomer(s) of an asteroid or comet from a telescope or helioscope.
(See Project Lookout! And Project Look-in! to discover 200-million asteroids and 2-billion comets)

2% to the telescope or helioscope owner(s) of an asteroid or comet

2% to the funder(s) of the scope that budget year instrumental in discovery of an asteroid or comet

1% to the first confirmation astronomer, scope owner, and funder of the scope, to verify a new discovery, including at least a two time-lapse course track against the night sky

3% for ground or space-based assay of asteroid surface by spectroscope, radar, infrared, or remote means (See Project Gehrels, which is now in development)

3% for assay core samples of the asteroid or comet in 8 compass points by 8 more at right angles
(See Project Shoemaker)

6% for recording, tracking, observational and path projections, and publishing past & present title for next 500 years from 500 accumulated status observations. For property rights to title, no more than the first 20 track observations within any of the first 5 years post-discovery, and 20 per every five years for the next 20 years, will be shared from the first 1% of title rights. After that, no more than one first observation per year for property rights to title as a fraction of 500 divided into the remaining 5% will be rewarded, unless a slingshot course change occurs around any gravity bod(ies) changing its course is detected, (such as 1998OX4 was lost after sling-shotting around both Mars & Venus and threatening Earth while it was lost for 9 months in 2003 and subsequent observations narrowed its miss of Earth’s fantail from 89-million miles down to 5-million that year or it is part of a tandem asteroid orbiting each other until gravity field is disturbed by another object like the Earth or Moon). Then the first 20 more new astronomical time-lapse observations sufficient to track its new course will be rewarded another 1%. The deficit one-percents coming from re-navigation 15% when no party either had or had not prior assumed this responsibility with ability to perform.

Building Out Accountability and Accounting for Liability
Unless this Near Earth Object (NEO) is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) or fast Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO) nearing a cone of probability on the Torino Scale to Earth or human colony; then property rights to title in that event will come from 15% re-navigation assumed responsibility rights to title requiring more than 20 observations per year for each 1% for the first professional or amateur astronomers to do so. The tracking responsibility will also include possible collisions with any object in the Solar System calculated for 500 years hence. The reporting of new habitats or mining locations or orbits will be transmitted in an honest effort to all title insurance companies in the Solar System, or loss of the 6% will occur. These recordings and published responsibilities or lack thereof, must be published to all Humanity in three ways throughout the Solar System. Open transparent sharing of all recordings and title data among competitive recording firms, title recording, and title insurance companies and title arbitration courts, is required to retain the 6% or sale of the data by the original recorder assuming that responsibility.
Any on-going dispute will cloud the title for all disputing parties, with recompense to the winning party from those who challenged title without cause. Any tax-paid entity or academia currently performing this tracking and recording function with observational projections of future courses, shall receive 6% property rights to title, and beyond their operational existence, based on who did it first. That tax-paid entity will return the value to the public treasuries which funded their slow pioneering efforts in an earlier era. These recording rights may be sold to private parties or recording title insurance companies on the same conditions per asteroid or comet, or as the public entity ceases to exist, and similarly with competitive title recording and insurance risk firms.
(See Project Helin)

The right to enumerate the asteroid by astronomical convention by third parties such as recorders or title companies, shall not infringe on the discovering astronomer(s)’ recognized right to name the asteroid or comet, nor the(ir) ability to sell the right to name it to another party. This does not include the owners nor funders of the telescope. The enumeration method should be understood by all astronomers, recorders and title companies, as with the current year, month, day system is deemed adequate -- or until modified in the future with a higher volume of discoveries. However, no association of astronomers can interfere or pre-empt the naming process by an astronomer. Only a slandered or libeled party by the naming, can challenge the name in a title insurance company court; as merely being offended is not sufficient grounds. Offended parties can purchase the naming rights if the astronomer(s) or their heirs are so inclined, or not. These names will be published by all title companies, with stated objections to the astronomer(s)’ free speech, if so interested.
(See Project Marsden)
4% for physically beaconing an asteroid with two belts around equator and polar at 90-degree angles; that will emit a signal visually and electronically on several established frequencies.
(See Project Cowbell).
15% for declared assumption of re-navigation responsibility in perpetuity until a receiving declaration is made, for the purposes of not colliding with any other object in the Solar System. If more than one party declares their intention to re-navigate an asteroid or comet, this may be conditionally divided in reward to avert a collision disaster in an emergency, with the reward to the party or parties that actually performs the function of re-navigation whether for commercial purposes to place it in a safe orbit or to mine it or habitat it in another track or location than its original course. If in an emergency, the asteroid or comet is only able to be diverted by time-critical explosive means from a collision, and debris is a smaller risk in smaller collisions, the re-navigator(s) will still be held liable for their attempt to avert a greater disaster by losing the value of the 75% of their holdings to injured parties for loss of life or property. Re-navigation insurance is recommended for those attempting to do so. This also applies to any government seeking its national defense and botching the attempt. Early warning is the objective to avert time-critical action, and governments have never risen to the occasion since the dawn of spaceflight despite their justification that defense is arrogated by their constitutions, but have not performed. Incentives for individuals and companies organized to create both zone and point defense from incoming asteroids and comets will be the convention to avert disasters from even looming.
(See Project Lasso).
1% property rights to title for assumption of responsibility for non-pollution of dust trail, debris, objects such as propulsion units cast-off either intentionally or unintentionally shall be tracked, space traffic control, vigilance against anyone using a rock as a hostile projectile or mining explosives as a weapon of war, revolution, or counter-revolution against anyone shall be liable for loss of their personal, public, or business ownership of title to any asteroid or comet, and shall be reissued to a next generation. Governments that benefit from their property title to a portion of the first asteroids discovered, will be losing value of their claims in 20 years by cloud of title or loss, unless they contract to clean up the >25,000 objects of space debris in Earth orbit now as noted by USAF Project Raven and other observing and tracking entities, and more in the Solar System; and thereafter track such hazards to navigation until reacquired. Notice shall be given to all humanity of these remaining objects, lost or found, with best guesstimates as to last course. Any government or party that does not organize do this anti-pollution and anti-debris contractor function, or issue privateering letters for disposing of junk debris within 20 years, will cloud their title until 90% is retrieved, or if refusing, lose their property rights to title as others will do so and bill them with expectation of payment, or again face loss of the polluters' rights to title. All property rights to title will be frozen in 20 years until 90% of all cast-off objects launched since 1959 moving at thousands of miles/kilometers per hour will be recovered.
1% property rights to title will reward those astro-preneurs who pre-bury habitat or working areas beneath 8-feet think nickel-iron steel, or 20-feet of dirt to protect new inhabitants and workers on arrival from cosmic-ray induced cancer that will otherwise occur after 177-days of exposure in a tin can or inflatable shell. This is earnable by remote control dirt-movers. Since the first 3-feet of regolith (topsoil) of any asteroid or comet has valuable H3 or H4 content from millenniums of cosmic ray bombardment, and is useful in plasma rocket fuel, an additional 3-feet should be added to these calculations.
The above responsibilities total 40%, leaving the balance of 60% for mining or habitat rights. The current recognition by the 2016 US Congress of property rights is that mined material may be kept by the asteroid miner; or by the 2016 Luxembourg Legislature as a bankable claim asset. The Moon & Celestial Bodies Treaty prohibits wisely governments from claiming territory but does not address commercial or personal property. The Earth-Path Defense Fund (EPDF) asserts that there are many earned rights that need to be rewarded for many functions providing incentives for discovery and safety of Humanity, long before any mining or settlement occurs on an asteroid or comet.

The Common Individual Heritage of Humankind


The collectivist desire to control all human activity to internalize all externality factors of trade or existence in the name of danger is not satisfactory in their quest to have more resources to redistribute to serfs. Their excuse is called The Common Heritage of Mankind with themselves as dictators of need. The alternative is to consider the Common Individual Heritage of Humankind which recognizes the essentiality of these rewarded responsibilities to every person for a sustainable awareness of all dangers, and the value of resources to do something about them when someone declares a goal to go to a specific asteroid. This activity will have as an economic externality factor of millions of specialized people caring as stakeholders in space resources, interested in preserving their potential and real rewards from Space Resources will protect us all. That issuance of property title to the most accessible rocks in space not at the bottom of a gravity well, for those who assume responsibilities, will result in a Space Wealth based currency. That is something that centralized authorities wish to control the future of all with. Every individual who cares about asteroids and comets from astronomy or mining, does not need their permission, nor dictators’ certificates of public need, to perform an activity, nor turn all scientists into welfare recipients while states, sovereign bankers, or United Nations seeks conquest of all the blue and black oceans for their agrandizement.  
Property Rights to Title of 149 Moons in the solar System are not a clear and present danger as asteroids and comets.

The issuance of property title to any of the 149 moons of the solar system shall be considered the common individual heritage of humankind, and 10-billion titles to individuals and common areas such as transit, of rectangular trigons to the core and atmosphere of the first 20 largest moons will be considered a separate set of title than originally moving objects in the Solar System. Other moons property title will be reserved for future generations every 10 years, and or early settlers making claims of individual square trigons that can be reassigned if they do not land on their own. The asteroid wealth will create $1000-Trilllion at minimum for Near Earth Objects (NEO)s. The EPDF wants to protect Humankind while these objects are Far from Earth Objects (FEO)s. To that objective, the more people who are in Space, and settle there with ownership, will provide the wealth to re-navigate any danger and convert it into something productive at many outposts of civilization. WE invite you to join the Earth-Path Defense Fund, the Space Property-title & Asteroid Resources Consortium (StarCo), and participate in Asteroid Detection, Deflection, & Development (ADDD) Projects. 

  Page Two - How Title Rights Are Handled